Gherkin has its own set of keywords and each keyword has some meaning. To learn how to write steps in Gherkin language you must be familiar with its keyword. If you are using any editor you will find these keywords are highlighted with some color. Each keyword is translated to many spoken languages; in this reference we’ll use English.
Categories of Gherkin Keywords
- Primary Keyword: Feature, Rule, Scenario, Example or Scenarios, Given, When, Then, And, But, Background, Scenario Outline, Examples
- Secondary Keyword: Doc String("""), Data Tables(I), @(Tags), #(Comment)
Each step starts with Given, When, Then, And, or But.
A complete list of Gherkin Primary Keywords and their synonyms
|Feature||Business Need, Ability||Begins a Gherkin file.|
|Background||Runs steps before Scenario|
|Scenario||Starts a new scenario|
|Scenario Outline||Scenario Template||Starts a new scenario with multiple examples|
|Given||*, And, But||Puts the system in a predefined state|
|When||*, And, But||Perform an Action|
|Then||*, And, But||Tests for consequence|
|Example||Scenarios||List examples for Scenario Outline|
|Rule||Represent one business rule that should be implemented|
Note: And is used for statements that are an addition to the previous steps and represent positive statements. But are used for statements that are an addition to the previous steps and represents negative statements.